The main reason for the development of complications of diabetes is vascular damage due to prolonged decompensation of diabetes mellitus (prolonged hyperglycemia - high blood sugar). First of all affected the microcirculation, ie, blood flow is disturbed by the smallest vessels.
Eye involvement in diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy. This complication of diabetes mellitus is associated with impaired blood flow in the vessels of the fundus, namely - in the retina. retinal vessels in diabetic retinopathy become more brittle, permeable, which can lead to bleeding. Diabetic retinopathy develops gradually and is even quite pronounced her stage may be imperceptible to the patient. If extensive retinal hemorrhages or detachment can occur a significant reduction in visual acuity up to complete blindness. The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy can detect only an ophthalmologist (eye specialist) for fundus examination with dilated pupils (mydriasis of the eye instilled special drops, and then temporarily vision becomes blurred, indistinct). Diabetics examination by an ophthalmologist is necessary to carry out at least 1 time per year! If you have proven complications of diabetes generic for januvia from the eye examination by an ophthalmologist is performed more often (depending on the stage of diabetic retinopathy).
Kidney damage in diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. Renal glomeruli (which make up the kidney tissue) acts as a filter. Waste substances are filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine, and the desired - retained. If it affects the small blood vessels of the renal glomeruli filter in diabetes becomes more permeable. The urine protein misses, which is necessary to the substance in the renal filter normally can not penetrate. Feel the initial manifestations of diabetic nephropathy is impossible, so you need to take a daily urine analysis for protein, blood chemistry (eg, creatinine, urea), at least 1 time per year (and in the development of diabetic nephropathy - often, depending on the stage).
Nerve damage in diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes. First of all diabetes suffer leg, because there the longest nerve fibers throughout the human body. Manifested diabetic neuropathy pain in the legs, burning sensation, "pins and needles", tingling, numbness. Also, the distal diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a decrease in the sensitivity of the feet: lost the ability to perceive the impact of high and low temperature, pain (for example, an injection with a sharp object), vibration, etc. This complication of diabetes is very dangerous, because it increases the risk and makes the invisible minor injuries, for example, when released into the shoes of foreign objects, wearing incorrect footwear, in the processing of nails, corns. Reduced sensitivity in combination with common in diabetes and obesity leads to deformation of the feet when walking misallocation pressure. This leads to tissue trauma of the foot up to the formation of ulcers in the areas with the largest load. Lots trauma may become inflamed, infection develops. The inflammatory process in a reduced sensitivity occurs without pain, which may lead to an underestimation of the patient in danger. The self-healing does not occur if diabetes compensation unsatisfactory, and in severe cases, the running process can progress, leading to the development of purulent inflammation - cellulitis. In the worst case scenario, and in the absence of treatment of the limbs may occur necrosis - gangrene. Gangrene is perhaps one of the most dangerous complications of diabetes.
The defeat of the heart and large blood vessels in patients with diabetes is associated with atherosclerosis of the arteries. On the mechanism of the development of this complication of diabetes is no different from that of people without diabetes. But in patients with diabetes mellitus atherosclerosis occurs much more frequently than others, and at a younger age.
The risk of complications of diabetes is their gradual, often imperceptible to the patient with diabetes development.
The most important component of the prevention and treatment of complications of diabetes is a good compensation of diabetes, ie maintaining the target level of blood sugar (target values of blood sugar level determined by the doctor-endocrinologist individually). In addition to the daily measurement of blood sugar levels, it is necessary to monitor the level of glycated hemoglobin (an indicator of the average content of blood glucose for the past 3 months) 1 time in 3 months.
With a view to early diagnosis and timely treatment of diabetic retinopathy need regular checkups ophthalmologist (eye specialist) with fundus examination with dilated pupils (mydriasis of the eye instilled special drops, and then temporarily vision becomes blurred, indistinct). Diabetics examination by an ophthalmologist is necessary to carry out at least 1 time per year. If you have proven complications of diabetes from the eye examination by an ophthalmologist is performed more often (depending on the stage of diabetic retinopathy). For the treatment of complicated diabetic retinopathy, retinal laser photocoagulation is used. Timely and rigorously conducted laser coagulation allows you to save vision even in the later stages of diabetic retinopathy.
For the purpose of early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy and prevent its further development is necessary to hand over the analysis of daily urine for protein, blood chemistry (eg, creatinine, urea), at least 1 time per year (and in the development of diabetic nephropathy - often, depending on the stage) .
In addition, you need to stop smoking, to actively fight against excess weight, move more, to monitor the level of blood pressure and blood cholesterol (to maintain their normal value).
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