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Hypoxia

Hypoxia (a literal translation from Greek - "low oxygen") - a condition of oxygen starvation of the whole organism and individual organs and tissues buy ventolin online caused by various external and internal factors.

Symptoms of hypoxia are very diverse and almost always depend on the degree of its severity, duration of exposure and the causes. We give the most basic symptoms and explain the reasons for their development.

Hypoxia can be acute (develops after a few minutes, hours) from the start of exposure to the causative factor or may be chronic (develops slowly, over several months or years).

Acute hypoxia is more pronounced clinical picture and booming heavy consequences for the organism, which may be irreversible. Chronic hypoxia as It develops slowly, allowing the body of the patient to adapt to it, so patients with severe respiratory failure with chronic pulmonary diseases live a long time without dramatic symptoms. At the same time, chronic hypoxia also leads to irreversible consequences.

The main mechanisms to protect the organism from hypoxia

1) The increase in respiratory rate, to enhance the supply of oxygen to the lungs and its further transport blood. Initially, frequent and deeper breathing, however, as the exhaustion of the respiratory center becomes rare and superficial.

2) The increase in heart rate, increased blood pressure and increased cardiac output. Thus, the body is experiencing oxygen starvation trying to "give" as much as possible and faster than oxygen in the tissue.

3) Release of deposited blood in the blood flow and increased formation of red blood cells - to increase the number of oxygen carriers.

4) Slow down the functioning of certain tissues, organs and systems in order to reduce oxygen consumption.

5) Go to the "alternative sources of energy." Since oxygen to fully meet the energy needs of the body is not enough, there is the launch of alternative sources of energy to provide almost all of the processes occurring in the body. This defense mechanism is called anaerobic glycolysis, ie the breakdown of carbohydrates (the main source of energy that is released during their decay) without oxygen. However, the downside of this process is the accumulation of undesirable products such as lactic acid, as well as a shift in the acid-base balance in the acid side (acidosis). Under the conditions of acidosis begins to show the whole weight of hypoxia. Violated microcirculation in tissues, becomes inefficient breathing and circulation, and eventually comes complete depletion of reserves and stop breathing and circulation, ie death.

The above mentioned mechanisms in acute hypoxia short rapidly depleted, resulting in death of the patient. Chronic hypoxia, they are able to function for a long time to compensate for oxygen starvation, but bring permanent pain to the patient.

The first to suffer central nervous system. The brain always receives 20% of all the oxygen the body, it is the so-called "Oxygen debt" of the body, which is due to the enormous demand of the brain of oxygen. For easy disorders in cerebral hypoxia include: headaches, drowsiness, confusion, fatigue, impaired concentration. Severe hypoxia symptoms: disorientation, impairment of consciousness up to coma, brain swelling. Patients suffering from chronic hypoxia, severe personality disorders become associated with the so-called hypoxic encephalopathy.

The low oxygen content in the tissues manifests itself in their staining bluish color (cyanosis). Cyanosis may be diffuse (widespread) such as bronchospasm. Sometimes akrotsianoz -sinyushny color of the fingers and the nail plate and may be cyanosis of nasolabial triangle. For example, in acute and chronic heart and respiratory failure.

Changing the shape of nails and distal phalanges. Chronic hypoxia, the nails thicken and take on a rounded shape reminiscent of the "hour glass". Distal (nail), finger bones thicken, giving the fingers kind of "drumsticks."



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