Infectious diseases (Infectious disease) - constitute a group of diseases united by common features (ie typical medical symptoms) caused by infection, as a result of the growth and development of pathogenic biological agents in the body of the carrier. In some cases, infectious disease symptoms may not appear, or for part of the illness. Infectious agents include pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites and aberrant proteins known as prions More canadian pharmacy drugstore. These pathogens cause disease only in the presence of the pathogen (the pathogen).
Pathogen transmission can occur in various ways, including physical contact, getting into the food, body fluids, inhalation, as well as contact with an infected vector-organisms. Infectious diseases are often called contagious, because they are easily transmitted by direct contact with the patient. Infectious diseases transmitted by, for example, only organisms that transmit through sexual contact or just called contagious, but do not require the patient isolation.
The term suggests an infectious organism's ability to infiltrate the carrier body to survive and breed there, while the infectiousness of the disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is transmitted. Infection is not synonymous with infectious diseases, as some infections do not cause disease in a host.
Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms cause disease in healthy people just a few. Infectious diseases result from the interaction of multiple agents with the defense of becoming infected with the organism. Infection and severity of the disease depends on the ability of the pathogen to be harmful to the host organism and the ability of the host to resist this. Infectious microorganisms, or microbes, are classified as primary pathogens or pathogen-conditioned, depending on the state of immunity.
Mainly pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host organism, their own ability to cause diseases of varying severity and need for reproduction and distribution. Many of the most common primary pathogens infect only humans, however many serious diseases are the result of human interaction with the environment or carrier-not-human.
The organisms that cause infections in the body with a weak protection-classified as conventional pathogens. Diseases may be caused by microbes, which often are in the body, such as pathogenic bacteria and fungi in the gastro-intestinal tract or upper airways. They also may be a result of exposure (often innocuous) microbes acquired from other media (in the case of colitis caused by Clostridium difficile) or from the environment as a result of trauma (e.g., in a complex fracture). Diseases caused by opportunistic require breach of protective functions of the organism, which may result from genetic defects (e.g., chronic granulomatosis) effects of antibacterial drugs or immunosuppressive drugs (e.g., in cases of poisoning or due to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer), exposure to ionizing radiation or as a result of the disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as measles, malaria or HIV infection). Primary pathogens may also cause more severe illness with weakened immunity.
One way to confirm that the disease is contagious, is to check Koch (first proposed by Robert Koch), which implies that the infectious agent should be only for those patients who are in contact with the pathogen, or other patients. These postulates were first used at the opening of tuberculosis. Koch's postulates can not be applied for many human diseases because they require experimental infection of a healthy person. Very often, infectious diseases do not meet all the necessary criteria of infectivity. For example, Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, can not be created in a test tube, but the organism can grow in rabbit eggs. Epidemiology is another important tool used to study these diseases. When infectious diseases it helps to determine whether a single case of the disease, endemic (common in a particular region), epidemic (an unusually large number of cases in the region), or pandemic (a global epidemic).
Infectious diseases are transmitted always from any source. Determination of transmission method is important for understanding the biology of an infectious agent, as well as to determine the diseases that it causes. Transmission may occur via several different mechanisms. Respiratory diseases and meningitis are usually acquired by contact with droplets of the aerosol, which are spread by sneezing, coughing, talking, kissing or even songs. Gastrointestinal diseases are often transmitted through consumption of contaminated food or water. Sexually transmitted infection, usually spread from body fluids, as a result of sexual activity. Certain infectious agents passed through contact with contaminated inanimate objects (fomites), such as transfer of money from one person to another. Some penetrate right through the skin.
Infectious diseases can spread and organisms-carriers. The transfer can be carried out mechanically or biologically. When the mechanical transmission of the body-carrier takes the infectious agent on the outside of its body and transmits it in a passive form. An example of such a transfer is a fly. She is in contact with cow dung and collects on your body pathogens. Then a fly flies and lands on food, transferring, so pathogens. The pathogen thus misses flies inside the body.
When a biological organism transmission carrier introduces the pathogen in your body and delivers it to the person, usually through a bite. In this way, transmitted to a serious blood diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease, Lyme disease and African sleeping sickness. Biological transmission is usually, though not always, performed arthropods: mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and lice. Because pathogens associated with vectors, the most effective strategies for preventing disease is the destruction of carriers.
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