vaginal cancer can be primary and metastatic (secondary). Of all malignant diseases of the genital organs of women primary cancer of the vagina is 1-2%, can occur at any age, but mainly in the 50-60 years old.In most cases, the cancer is metastatic vagina is - transition consequence malignancy cervical and endometrial vaginal wall. Metastatic cancer affects the vagina tamoxifen and fatigue in the arches and the bottom third.
The predominant age - 45-65 years: for squamous cell variant - 35-70 years; for clear cell carcinoma.
For women exposed during the prenatal period, the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), the average age of developing clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina is 19.5 years.
The risk of developing this cancer in women under the age of 24 years who have been exposed to DES in utero, is from 0.14 / 1000 to 1.4 / 1000.
The cause of vaginal cancer is not known, except for clear cell adenocarcinoma - its occurrence is associated with exposure to DES. DES was used in 40-50-ies to maintain pregnancy in women at high risk - diabetes, habitual abortion, threatened abortion and other obstetric complications. In all reported cases of adenocarcinoma receiving DES started up to 18 weeks of pregnancy.
Risk factors for vaginal cancer:vaginal adenosis. Normally, the vagina is lined with flat cells - epithelium. In 40% of cases after the onset of menses in the vagina can appear zone glandular cells, as in the uterus. This phenomenon is called adenosis and may slightly increase the risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina regardless of the DRC.
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). This group includes more than 70 types of viruses that can cause the papilloma. Different viruses cause different types of papillomavirus in many areas of the body (on the palms and soles, lips and tongue, male and female genitals and the anus). The viruses are transmitted from person to person through sexual contact. These viruses are found in cells of certain tumors of the vagina.
Early sexual debut, having many sexual partners, ignoring protection increases the risk of infection by human papilloma viruses.
Cervical cancer and premalignant changes in the cervix increases the risk of squamous cell vaginal cancer. Radiotherapy, held earlier in the area of cervical cancer also increases the risk of developing vaginal cancer, possibly by damaging the DNA of cells of the vagina.
Irritation of the vagina in women who use pessaries a roll of the uterus, leading to chronic inflammation of the vagina, and some increase in the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma.
Smoking, especially at a young age may play a role in the development of cancer of the vagina. This assumption is made on the basis that women suffering from vaginal cancer is often diagnosed lung cancer, which is directly linked to tobacco consumption. There are exophytic form of growth, when the tumor is represented on the walls of the vagina protruding papillary growths resembling cauliflower, and endophytic when the neoplastic process from the beginning grows into the underlying tissues, infiltrating them.
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